# Volumes of Revolution Core Pure 2

## Scheme of work: Year 13 A-Level Further Maths: Core Pure 2: Volumes of Revolution

#### Prerequisite Knowledge

From GCSE Mathematics:

1. Algebra: Proficiency in algebraic manipulation, including factoring, expanding, and solving equations.
2. Geometry: Knowledge of basic geometrical principles, especially understanding areas and volumes of basic shapes.
3. Graphing Skills: Ability to graph basic functions and understand properties of these graphs.

From A-Level Mathematics:

1. Calculus: A strong understanding of both differentiation and integration techniques. In particular, finding areas under curves using definite integration is crucial.
2. Functions: Familiarity with functions and their graphs, including polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and trigonometric functions.
3. Coordinate Geometry: Ability to find equations of tangents and normals to a curve at a given point.

#### Success Criteria

1. Understanding Volumes of Revolution: Grasp the concept of volumes of revolution and its relationship to integration.
2. Setting up Integrals: Ability to appropriately set up the integral required to compute the volume of a solid of revolution.
3. Performing Integrations: Accurately perform integration to determine the volume. This includes handling limits of integration correctly and applying the correct techniques to evaluate the integrals.
4. Interpreting Graphs: Be proficient in sketching and interpreting the graphs of functions to understand the solid they generate when revolved about an axis.
5. Applying Methods: Apply the methods to a variety of functions, including polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions.
6. Problem Solving: Use volumes of revolution to solve a variety of problems, demonstrating an understanding of the application in real-world contexts.

#### Teaching Points

1. Volumes of Revolution Concept: Begin with explaining the basic idea of volumes of revolution, how it’s related to the definite integral, and its geometric interpretation.
2. Setting up Integrals: Show how to form the appropriate integral to find the volume of a solid of revolution. This involves selecting the correct function, choosing the correct limits, and identifying the axis of revolution.
3. Integration Techniques: Reinforce the appropriate integration techniques to evaluate these integrals, including the disk and washer methods.
4. Interpreting and Sketching Graphs: Teach how to sketch and interpret the graphs of functions and how to visualize the volume they create when revolved around an axis.
5. Application to Various Functions: Apply the method to various types of functions, such as polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.
6. Real-World Applications: Highlight the real-world applications of this topic to help students understand its practical uses, such as in engineering and physical sciences.

#### Common Misconceptions

1. Misunderstanding of the Concept: Some students struggle to grasp the geometric interpretation of volumes of revolution and the connection to definite integration.
2. Errors in Setting up Integrals: Often, mistakes are made when setting up the integral for the volume of a solid of revolution. This could involve choosing incorrect limits of integration or incorrect function for rotation.
3. Miscalculations in Integration: Students may incorrectly apply integration techniques, leading to errors in computation. This could include forgetting to square the function in the integrand or applying the wrong integration method.
4. Graph Interpretation: Difficulty in sketching or interpreting graphs can lead to errors in understanding which volume is being formed by the revolution.
5. Choosing the Axis of Revolution: Some students struggle to correctly identify the axis of revolution, which can lead to miscalculations.
6. Applying to Various Functions: When the method is applied to different functions such as exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, students may make errors due to unfamiliarity.

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