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In this lesson, students learn how to describe geometrical transformations on a grid. They are be introduced to four types of transformations: reflections, rotations, enlargements, and translations. Students learn how to identify and describe these transformations using mathematical language.

**Common Misconceptions**

Some common misconceptions that students have about transformations include:

- Thinking that all transformations are the same.
- Not understanding the difference between a reflection and a rotation.
- Not understanding how to describe a transformation using mathematical language.

The starter activity involves students solving a problem based on reflective symmetry. This helps to activate their prior knowledge and get them thinking about the topic.

**Key Questions:**

- If we draw a line through the middle of this shape, will we have two identical halves? Why or why not?
- What would happen to the shape if we folded it along the mirror line? Would both halves match perfectly?

The teaching phase involves the teacher introducing how to recognise the four types of transformations in detail.

**Reflections:**A reflection is a transformation that flips a shape over a mirror line.**Rotations:**A rotation is a transformation that turns a shape around a point.**Enlargements:**An enlargement is a transformation that makes a shape bigger or smaller by a specific scale factor.**Translations:**A translation is a transformation that moves a shape by a specific vector.

Click here to watch the video tutorial.

**Key Questions:**

- What are some key differences between a rotation and a reflection of a shape on the grid? How can you tell them apart?
- What do we mean when we say a shape has been ‘enlarged by a scale factor of 2’? How would this change the size and position of the shape?

The independent learning phase involves students working on the questions shown on a handout. More able students can progress to a separate worksheet with more challenging questions.

**Key Questions:**

- Can you explain how you determined the direction and magnitude of this vector during translation?”
- How did you decide on the centre of rotation for this shape? What happens if you choose a different point?”

The plenary involves the teacher reviewing the key concepts of the lesson. The teacher could also ask students questions to assess their understanding of the material.

- What can you tell me about the size and position of this shape after enlargement with a scale factor of 3? How about a scale factor of 0.5?”
- When describing an enlargement, why do we need to specify the centre of enlargement?”

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