# 3D Vectors – Year 2

#### Prerequisite Knowledge

From Year 1

• Use vectors in two dimensions.
• Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector;
• Add vectors diagrammatically perform the algebraic operations of vector addition and multiplication by scalars, and understand their geometrical interpretations;
• Understand and use position vectors; calculate the distance between two points represented by position vectors
• Use vectors to solve problems in pure mathematics and in context, including forces

#### Success Criteria

• Use vectors in three dimensions.
• Add 3D vectors diagrammatically and perform the algebraic operations of vector addition and multiplication by scalars, and understand their geometrical interpretations.
• Understand and use 3D position vectors; calculate the distance between two 3D points represented by position vectors]
• Use 3D vectors to solve problems in pure mathematics and in context, including forces] and kinematics

#### Key Concepts

1. Basics of 3D Vectors

• 3D Cartesian Coordinates: Recognizing and understanding the three axes (x, y, z) and how they define points in three-dimensional space.

2. Diagrammatic Representation

• Graphical Representation: Drawing vectors in three dimensions using arrows and accurately indicating their direction and magnitude.
• Base Vectors: Understanding the role of i, j, and k unit vectors in representing 3D vectors.

3. Algebraic Operations in 3D Vectors

• Vector Addition: Adding two or more vectors both algebraically (component-wise) and geometrically.
• Scalar Multiplication: Multiplying a vector by a scalar and understanding how it affects the magnitude and direction.
• Geometrical Interpretations: Visualising and interpreting the geometric implications of vector operations, like understanding the resultant vector in vector addition.

4. 3D Position Vectors

• Definition: Recognizing that position vectors originate from the origin and end at the given point.
• Distance Calculation: Using the Pythagorean theorem in three dimensions to find the distance between two points represented by position vectors.

5. Application of 3D Vectors in Different Contexts

• Forces: Using vectors to represent force magnitudes and directions in three dimensions and resolving forces into their components.
• Kinematics: Vectors represent motion, velocity, and acceleration in three-dimensional space.

6. Problem-Solving with 3D Vectors

• Pure Mathematics Problems: Such as finding the angle between two vectors.
• Real-World Context Problems: Like determining the resultant force on an object due to multiple forces acting on it in different directions or predicting an object’s path in 3D space given its initial velocity and acceleration vectors.

#### Common Misconceptions

1. Basics of 3D Vectors

• Dimensional Confusion: Some students might confuse 2D and 3D vectors, especially when trying to visualize them or when transitioning from 2D to 3D problems.

2. Diagrammatic Representation

• Visualization Issues: Properly visualizing vectors in three dimensions can be challenging. Some might struggle to represent or interpret depth on a two-dimensional page.
• Base Vectors: Mixing up or misunderstanding the role of the i, j, and k unit vectors.

3. Algebraic Operations in 3D Vectors

• Scalar Multiplication: Believing that scalar multiplication only affects magnitude and not direction, or vice versa.

4. 3D Position Vectors

• Origin Point: Forgetting that position vectors are always referenced from the origin.
• Distance Calculation: Incorrectly using the distance formula or misapplying the Pythagorean theorem for three dimensions.

5. Application of 3D Vectors in Different Contexts

• Forces: Not understanding the difference between the magnitude and direction of forces or neglecting one component of a force in 3D space.
• Kinematics: Misinterpreting velocity and acceleration vectors or not understanding how to decompose them into their respective components.

6. Problem-Solving with 3D Vectors

• Solution Methods: Believing that the methods used for 2D vector problems are directly applicable to 3D without any modifications.
• Real-World Applications: Struggling to translate real-world situations into a vector framework or missing the physical significance of a vector operation.

7. General Misconceptions

• Static Nature of Vectors: Some students might view vectors as static entities rather than dynamic entities that can change based on operations or context.
• Mixing Vector and Scalar Quantities: Confusing or not recognizing the distinction between vectors and scalars in problems.

### Mr Mathematics Blog

#### Problem-Solving with Angles in Polygons

How to teach problem solving with angles in polygons through scaffolding.

#### The Sum to Infinity of Geometric Series – A-Level Maths Tutorial

Explore geometric series in our A-Level Maths tutorial. Perfect for students/teachers, with resources to download at mr-mathematics.com.

#### Sequences and Series

Edexcel A-Level Mathematics Year 2: Pure 2: Algebraic Methods