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**Basic Circle Geometry**: Understand the fundamental properties of circles, including terminology such as radius, diameter, circumference, and sectors.**Basic Trigonometry**: Know the definitions and relationships of the sine, cosine, and tangent of an angle, typically first introduced in the context of right triangles.**Angle Measurement**: Familiarity with measuring angles in degrees and the concept of angles greater than 360° or less than 0°.**Coordinate Geometry**: Recognize the Cartesian plane, particularly as it relates to plotting points on a circle and the unit circle.**Functions and Graphs**: Be comfortable graphing functions and understanding periodicity, amplitude, and frequency, especially as these concepts are introduced with trigonometric functions.

**Understanding the Concept**: Recognize that a radian is a measure of an angle in terms of the radius of a circle.**Converting Between Degrees and Radians**: Be able to convert angles given in degrees to radians and vice versa. Know the relationships:*π*radians = 180° and 2*π*radians = 360°.**Application in Circle Metrics**: Use radians to determine arc lengths and areas of sectors. Understand that arc length l =*rθ*and the area of a sector*A*=1/2 r^{2}*θ*where*θ*is in radians.**Trigonometric Functions**: Understand how the trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tan, etc.) behave with angles in radians, especially for the unit circle.**Graphing Functions**: Be able to graph trigonometric functions using radian measures on the x-axis.**Working with Small Angles**: Understand the small-angle approximations for sine, cosine, and tangent in terms of radians.**Solving Trigonometric Equations**: Solve trigonometric equations that involve angles in radians.**Understanding Periodicity**: Recognize that functions like sine and cosine have a period of 2*π*when the angle is measured in radians.

**Definition of a Radian**: Understand that a radian measures an angle by considering the length of the arc subtended at the centre of a circle relative to its radius.**Relationship to Degrees**: Recognize the equivalence between radians and degrees:*π*radians = 180° and 2*π*radians = 360°.**Arc Length**: Derive and use the formula for the arc length in terms of radians: l =*rθ*, where l is the arc length, r is the radius, and*θ*is the angle in radians.**Area of a Sector**: Derive and use the formula for the area of a sector in terms of radians:*A*=1/2 r^{2}*θ*.**Unit Circle**: Understand the unit circle and how angles in radians correspond to points on the circle. Use the unit circle to define the trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, etc.) in terms of radians.**Graphing Trigonometric Functions**: Plot trigonometric functions using radians on the x-axis. Recognize the periodicity, amplitude, and phase shift in the context of radians.**Trigonometric Identities**: Apply and derive trigonometric identities (e.g., double angle formulas) using angles in radians.**Small Angle Approximations**: For very small angles*θ*, understand that sin(*θ*)≈*θ*, cos(*θ*)≈1-*(1/2)θ*^{2}, and tan(*θ*)≈*θ*when*θ*is in radians.

**Equating Radians with Degrees**: Students sometimes mistakenly believe that radians and degrees represent the same magnitude of angle measure, e.g., thinking that 1 radian = 1°.**Misunderstanding the Definition**: Some students may think that the value of a radian is arbitrary, not realizing it’s derived from the radius length subtending an arc on a circle.**Incorrect Conversions**: It’s common for students to forget or mix up the conversion factor between radians and degrees. For instance, using*π*radians = 360° instead of*π*radians = 180°.**Overcomplicating Formulas**: When working with arc length or area of a sector, students might attempt to include conversion factors instead of directly applying l =*rθ*or*A*= 1/2*r*^{2}*θ*when the angle is already in radians.**Misinterpretation of Trigonometric Graphs**: When graphing functions like sine and cosine, students used to degrees might mislabel the periodicity or critical points (like the maximum, minimum, or zero points) when transitioning to a radian scale.**Small Angle Approximations**: Some students either forget to apply or mistakenly apply the small angle approximations. For instance, they might use them without verifying the angle is sufficiently small or forget that these approximations are typically valid only when angles are measured in radians.**Overuse of Conversion**: Instead of working directly in radians, students might continually convert back and forth between radians and degrees, leading to potential errors and more complex calculations.

December 6, 2023

How to teach problem solving with angles in polygons through scaffolding.

December 4, 2023

Explore geometric series in our A-Level Maths tutorial. Perfect for students/teachers, with resources to download at mr-mathematics.com.