Solving problems with non-right-angled triangles involves multiple areas of mathematics ranging from complex formulae to angles in a triangle and on a straight line.
As the GCSE mathematics curriculum increasingly challenges students to solve multiple step problems it is important for students to understand how to prove, apply and link together the various formulae associated to non-right-angled triangles.
There are three ways of teaching students how to derive the Sine, Cosine and Area rules.
I begin the topic of solving problems with non-right-angled triangles with the Sine Rule. At the start of the lesson students arrange a jumbled up derivation using right-angled trigonometry. In the main teaching phase we work through a series of problems involving missing angles and lengths. The plenary is more challenging as students need to apply various angle properties to have a matching angle and side.
After the Sine Rule we progress on to deriving and using the Cosine Rule to calculate unknown lengths. The start of the lesson is another jumbled up proof for the students to complete. When teaching the derivation most students are able to identify the a2 = b2 + c2 (-2bcCosA) as related to Pythagoras’ Theorem. The development phase teaches students how to substitute known values into the formula. As learning progresses students are challenged to combine the Sine and Cosine Rules within a single problem.
In this lesson students learn how to find an unknown angle in a triangle when all the lengths are known. We start with another jumbled up proof then quickly move on to sketching problems given as written descriptions. Using mini-whitboards to sketch their diagrams helps students to visualise the correct information.
This is the final lesson in the topic. Students apply both the Sine and Cosine rules to solve a range of problems involving the area of a triangle. At the start students learn how to find the area of a triangle. As learning progresses they use the area to calculate a missing angle or length. Exam questions often include the area of a triangle in the non-calculator paper as Sin 30 can be worked out exactly without the need for a calculator.
Students struggle solving larger problems that involve multiple formulae as they do not take the time to devise a strategy. I encourage students to take a minute or so to sketch a flowchart that will break the problem down into smaller, more manageable steps.
When the students have come up with a strategy we discuss how to identify which formula to use with the following prompts.
When a problem is given without a diagram students find it difficult to visualise what they are being asked to calculate which is why an accurate sketch is so important.
When I teach solving problems with non-right-angled triangles students are required to sketch the diagrams as part of their working. This helps them to accurately interpret the more wordy type problems. Understanding the correct notation is important. Angles are marked with capital letters. Opposite sides are marked with lower case letters.
When getting ready for a new school year I have a list of priorities to work through. Knowing my team have all the information and resources they need to teach their students gives me confidence we will start the term in the best possible way. Mathematics Teaching and Learning Folder All teachers receive a folder […]
Earlier this week, my school took part in a trial OFSTED inspection as part of getting ready for the new inspection framework in September 2019. This involved three Lead Inspectors visiting our school over the course of two days. The first day involved a ‘deep dive’ by each of the Lead Inspectors into Mathematics, English […]
The method of how to solve quadratics by factorising is now part of the foundational knowledge students aiming for higher exam grades are expected to have. Here is an example of such a question. Solve x2 + 7x – 18 = 0 In my experience of teaching and marking exam papers students often struggle with […]